Exceptional Circumstances – Appendix FM Immigration Rules

Families such as spouses, partners, and children who wish to make the UK their home can apply for a UK Family visa. British citizens or those who are settled in the UK can bring their partners to the UK by sponsoring them and meeting other requirements of the visa. Appendix FM of the immigration rules allows a British citizen or one settled in the UK to bring their spouse or partner to the UK. There are some eligibility and suitability requirements to be met for this. However, what if someone is unable to meet the financial or other requirements of Appendix FM? The immigration rules consider such cases where if exceptional circumstances are found, the leave to enter or remain is granted even if the sponsor is unable to meet one or more requirements.

Role of Home Office in the assessment of exceptional circumstances

When a sponsor is unable to meet financial or other requirements but they still want leave to enter or remain granted because there are exceptional circumstances, the decision depends upon Home Office. This is upon the Home Office to decide if they feel granting visa to the applicant is not against the good of the public of UK and at the same time not granting visa will result in ‘unduly harsh’ consequences for the applicant and
their partner or spouse in the UK.
Basically, the applicant needs to show that refusal of leave to enter or remain by the Home Office would lead to a breach of the applicant’s rights under Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights (the right to private and family life) because refusal will result in “unjustifiably harsh consequences”; for the applicant, their partner, child or another family member involved.

Satisfying the exceptional circumstances

It may look simple to satisfy the exceptional circumstances rule but it is not so. Unusual or difficult situations are not considered exceptional circumstances. You must prove that if a visa is refused it will be disproportionate to the legitimate goal and the individual or
their family will face unjustifiably harsh consequences.

Exemption from financial requirement

Usually, if you can’t meet minimum income requirement but you are a beneficiary of disability living allowance, Severe disablement allowance, industry injury disablement benefit, attendance allowance, carer’s allowance etc. can prove that they can maintain their partner. But if you are not on any of these benefits and you can’t meet minimum income requirements you can ask to have other sources of income taken into account. However, your situation will be considered only if you can prove that there are exceptional circumstances and this is a high bar. You need to prove that if the visa application is refused, the applicant’s human rights, sponsor or relevant child would be harmed. Again proving this can be complicated and thus you should seek advice from experts such as Visa and Migration Ltd.
You can also rely on regular income from other sources or financial support of funds such as –

(a) a credible guarantee of sustainable financial support to the applicant or their partner from a third party;
(b) credible prospective earnings from sustainable employment or self-
employment of the applicant or their partner; or
(c) any other credible and reliable source of income or funds for the applicant or their partner, which is available to them at the date of application or which will become available to them during the period of limited leave applied for.

You can also find more details on Appendix FM-SE of the Immigration Rules 

Satisfying other requirements

If you are not able to meet some of the other requirements such as you can’t sit the English test for some reason you can still apply citing exceptional circumstances. To satisfy the Home Office in this type of application, you need to convince the Home Office that if the visa application is refused it would result in “unjustifiably harsh” consequences for the applicant, the sponsor, or a relevant child. Again, to satisfy such exceptional circumstances you should contact us if you are considering applying under
this route.

Bringing your child to the UK – Sole Responsibility

Children of British citizens or parents who are settled holding Indefinite Leave to remain can apply for their children to join them if the parent or parents are in the UK and have sole responsibility for the child.
The similar requirement of sole responsibility also applies to parents who hold limited leave to remain or are granted limited leave to remain and want their child to join them or accompany them.

Who Is a Dependent?

Generally, a child under the age of 18 years is a dependent child. The children who may be dependent due to their medical needs such as disability, etc can also be considered dependents even if they are above 18 years of age. The threshold for children above 18 years is based on compassionate and compelling circumstances which is very high.

Entry clearance to the UK

Eligibility conditions are different for parents with limited leave to remain or indefinite leave to remain. If you have or are applying for limited leave to remain as a parent, your child needs to meet the following conditions to get entry clearance to the UK

  • Your child must be below 18 on the date of application
  • Your child must not be married or in a civil partnership or living an independent life
  • Your child must be supported financially without a claim of public fund
  • Either your current partner is the other parent of the child or you always had and continue to have sole responsibility for your child’s upbringing

Sole Responsibility

The sole responsibility has been defined by the Upper tribunal TD (Paragraph 297(i)(e): “sole responsibility”) Yemen [2006] UKAIT 00049

The determination states:

“Sole responsibility” is a factual matter to be decided upon all the evidence. Where one parent is not involved in the child’s upbringing because he (or she) had abandoned or abdicated
responsibility, the issue may arise between the remaining parent and others who have day-to- day care of the child abroad. The test is whether the parent has continuing control and direction over the child’s upbringing, including making all the important decisions in the child’s life.
However, where both parents are involved in a child’s upbringing, it will be exceptional that one of them will have “sole responsibility”.

If you want to apply for your child’s visa to join you in the UK you can contact or team of experts on 02034111261 or email us at – info@visaandmigration.com

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Adoption of a child – How it works

Adopting a child from overseas and bringing them to the UK is possible. In the UK one who wishes to adopt a child from overseas is permitted for the adoption. You can adopt a child from overseas if:

  • There is no safe environment for taking care of the child in their own country
  • Adopting such a child would be in the best interest of that child
  • The one who is adopting is found eligible and suitable to adopt from overseas by an adoption agency in the UK.
The adoption process only applies to grant of limited leave or indefinite leave to remain to the UK as –
  • The adopted child of a parent/s present and settled in the UK or being admitted for settlement in the UK
  • The adopted child of a parent or parents given limited leave to enter or remain in the UK
  • A child for adoption
  • A child for adoption under the Hague Convention
Adoption under the UK Immigration Rules paragraph 310 to 316

Adopting a child

The process of adoption of a child from overseas is the same as adopting a child in the UK. The adoption will be done by a UK adoption agency. The adoption agency will tell you what you need to do and guide you through the steps of adoption. The following steps of adoption are required to receive certificate of eligibility:

  • Your application is sent to the Department for Education (DfE) or your relevant UK central authority to check it meets eligibility criteria
  • DfE or your relevant UK central authority then issues a certificate of eligibility to adopt. After that, this certificate is sent with your adoption application to the relevant overseas authority.
  • Once matched, you need to visit the child in the country they are living in. Now you need to confirm in writing that you visited the child and want to proceed with the adoption.
  • You may have to go through a court process in the country you are adopting a child from and in the UK.
  • Once the placement is finalized, you need to arrange entry clearance so that the child can enter the UK.

The above process MAY only be avoided in De-facto Adoption or where the child is adopted according to the law of an overseas country and the adoption is accepted valid under – The Adoption (Recognition of Overseas Adoptions Order) 2013. And the adoption took place more than 12 months ago from the planned date of arrival.
In almost all cases the parents are required to be habitually resident in the UK, unless the child is only travelling for the purpose of adoption by the parents habitually resident outside the UK.

Bringing adopted children to the UK

A child adoption order in a court of the UK gives the adoptive parents full parental responsibility for the adopted child. The adoptive parents thus become a legal parent(s) of the child for their lifetime.

British citizenship for the child

Adopted children can become British citizens automatically at the time of adoption under the British nationality act in 2 situations:
1. When the final adoption order is certified in accordance with the terms of the Hague Convention. Also at the time of the adoption order, at least one of the adoptive parents was British and habitually resident in the UK.
2. When the child is adopted by order of a court in the UK and at the time of adoption order at least one of the adoptive parents was a British citizen.
In these situations, adoptive parents can send required proof of adoption and other documents and can make an application for a British passport for the child.
In other situations, children need to be registered as British citizens under the British nationality act.

Entry clearance and leave to remain for adopted children

Adopted children can also be granted limited or unlimited leave to remain or enter for children adopted by British citizens or by one who is settled in the UK. Children can be granted indefinite leave to remain if:
1 Both parents are present and settled in the UK.
2. One parent is present and settled in the UK while the other parent is dead.
3. One parent with sole responsibility for the child is present and settled in the UK.
4. One parent is present and settled in the UK and it is found that exclusion of the child for the child may lead to serious consequences for the child and there are ample arrangements for the care of the child.

The adoption process is complex and expensive and if you are looking for the professional assistance you can contact Visa and Migration Ltd for a consultation.

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Appendix Graduate – for Students who complete their courses in the UK

The new route is launched on 01 July 2021. This route is beneficial for students who have been sponsored by higher education and have successfully completed their course which is a minimum of 12 months or longer, in their last granted leave to enter or remain in the UK.

The courses will be Bachelor, Masters or one of the following courses –

(a) a law conversion course validated by the Joint Academic Stage Board in
England and Wales; or
(b) the Legal Practice Course in England and Wales, the Solicitors Course in
Northern Ireland, or a Diploma in Professional Legal Practice in Scotland; or
(c) the Bar Practice Course in England and Wales, or the Bar Course in
Northern Ireland; or
(d) a foundation programme in Medicine or Dentistry; or
(e) a Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) or Postgraduate Diploma in Education (PGDE); or
(f) a professional course requiring study at UK bachelor’s degree level or above in a profession with reserved activities that are regulated by UK law or UK public authority.

Distant learning during the period between 24 January 2020 and 27 September 2021 will be accepted as a period of studying in the UK, if the course began in 2020 and entered the UK on or before 21 June 2021 or the course began in 2021 and the applicant entered the UK before 27 September 2021.
Additionally, to meet the requirement under this route your application should not fall for refusal under the general grounds for refusal and should not be an overstayer for more than 14 days.
A Ph.D. student will be granted 3 years of leave to remain under this route and other applicants will be granted 2 years.
Dependents (partner and child under 18 years) already present in the UK with the student on a dependent visa can apply to extend under this route; however, dependents not holding a student dependent visa before cannot join the main applicant from outside the UK on this route.
Dependents will need to establish that their relationship is genuine and subsisting and that they do not fall for refusal. The period spent on this category can be counted towards indefinite leave to remain if you are applying under the 10 years long residence rule.
If you are looking for a professional UK visa and Immigration advice on your application, please contact Visa and Migration Ltd on 02034111261

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Sponsoring European workers

Brexit has changed the scenario completely. Now EU citizens are treated at par with any other non-British citizen from January 2021. EU employees hired after 31 December 2020 by UK employers will require a work visa like any other non-British citizen who wishes to work in the UK. From 2021 free movement between European nations and the UK is no longer in place. A new point-based system has come into force. This means all European workers arriving in the UK from 1 January 2021 will have to apply for a visa in advance. UK employers will have to sponsor to employ them as they do all other foreign workers. Employers who wish to hire European workers from 1 January 2021 will need to apply for a valid sponsor license.

Eligibility for a sponsor license

To get a license you need to meet the following conditions:

  •  You should not have unspent criminal convictions against you for immigration offences or other crimes such as money laundering
  • Your sponsor license should not have been revoked in the last 12 months.

Getting a license under the new system

If you are already a licensed sponsor you don’t need to apply as your organization will automatically be granted a skilled worker license under the new system. The expiry date of your license will be consistent with the current license. You don’t need to do anything to continue hiring skilled workers from 2021 provided you continue to comply with the rules and manage all the duties under the license.
If your organization has employed EU nationals in the UK and they are resident in the UK by 31 December 2020, the new rule will not impact these EU workers if they apply for EU settled or pre-settled status under the EU settlement scheme before 30 June 2021. For such EU workers who have an existing right to work in the UK, you don’t need to get a sponsor license.

EU workers resident in the UK by 31 December 2020

Those EU nationals and their family members who are living in the UK by 31 December 2020 don’t need to bother about their immigration status as their immigration status remains unchanged provided they register for EU settled status latest by 30 June 2021. This will enable them to continue living and working in the UK lawfully from 1 July 2021.

EU workers arriving in the UK from 1 January 2021

Under the new system, EU nationals who wish to work in the UK will have to get work visas like any other non-British citizen from 1 January 2021. They will have to apply for a point-based work visa, earn a minimum of 70 points and then only they can come and work in the UK.

Applying for a sponsorship licence to hire EU workers in the UK

If you already have a sponsor license you can do with the current license but if you have none in place and you have plans to hire EU workers in the UK through sponsorship routes from January 2021, you need to apply for a license now. The only advantage is that the EU nationals do not pay the fee of Certificate of Sponsorship.
If you are looking to sponsor a European worker, you can seek advice from our team of lawyers at Visa and Migration Ltd a private immigration law firm.

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How to calculate continuous residence for ILR?

ILR means indefinite leave to remain. ILR allows one to stay in the UK indefinitely without immigration restriction. This means once you have ILR you are considered to be settled in the UK permanently.
In order to apply for Indefinite Leave to Remain as a Sole Representation, Tier 2 or skilled worker, Tier 2 Minister or Religion or Sports Person, UK Ancestry or Hong Kong British National Overseas. All these routes require that the applicant has spent continuous residence in the UK.

Calculating continuous residence for ILR

Calculating your residence in the UK and absence from the UK is not always a straightforward thing. The continuous residence period requirement is the minimum length of time you must spend in the UK before being eligible for ILR. This calculation includes how many days you were absent from the UK as well during your 5 years of continuous residence in the UK.
The current rule says that you must not have been outside the UK for more than 180 days or more in any of the five 12 months periods preceding the date of your application for ILR. For example, if you applied on 10 January 2018 you need to count back 365 days to 11 January 2017 to check if you have
not exceeded 180 days limit in that period. Like this, you need to count until the start of your five years residence in the UK.
From January 2018 the wording of the rule has changed. Now if you will be refused ILR if at any point over the 5 years you exceeded 180 days limit in any 12 months. Absences are calculated on a rolling basis instead of fixed blocks. This means that you must not have spent more than 180 days outside the UK during any rolling 12-month within the qualifying period. For example, if you spent 7 months outside the UK between October 2016 and April 2017, you would still have been able to maintain the 180 days
absence limit by applying on 10 January 2018 because you could divide the absence across two different 12 months blocks. After 11 January 2018, this is not possible. Under the new rules, your application is likely to be refused. The way that UK Visas & Immigration (UKVI) will calculate the number of absences will therefore depend on whether your visa was granted before or after this date.

Exceptions to the 180 days absence rule

There are some exceptions to the 180 days absence rule where your periods outside the UK will not be counted when calculating the total number of days. For example, if you were assisting with a national or international humanitarian or environmental crisis overseas, travel disruption due to pandemic like COVID 19, natural disaster, military conflict etc.
The continuous residence rules also apply to the dependants in a similar manner.
If you are looking to apply for ILR, you can seek advice from our Immigration Lawyers at Visa and Migration Ltd.

UK Fiancé Visa – How to Apply

If you are engaged and looking to enter the UK as a fiancé of your partner who is either a British citizen or is a person holding Indefinite Leave to Remain, EEA National with limited Leave to Remain or a person holding limited leave as a ECAA person under Appendix ECAA of the immigration rules or a person who had a Refugee status or granted humanitarian protection, you can apply for a UK Fiancé visa.
UK Fiancé visa is valid for 6 months only within which you must get married to your UK Fiancé within 6 months else you will have to leave the UK or apply for another form of immigration permission to remain in the UK. Your fiancé needs to sponsor you.

How to apply for a UK Fiancé visa

First, you need to meet the eligibility conditions. The requirements set out for a UK fiancé visa are the following:

  • You (applicant) and your fiancé must be 18 or above.
  • You and your UK fiancé must prove intention to get married or enter into a civil partnership within 6 months of your arrival in the UK.
  • You must prove that any previous marriages or civil partnerships have ended.
  • There must be an intention to settle in the UK.
  • You and your fiancé must meet the relationship requirements.
  • You and your fiancé must meet the financial requirements.
  • You and your fiancé must meet the adequate accommodation requirement.
  • You must prove that you have good knowledge of English.

Applying from outside the UK for fiance visa

You must apply for a UK Fiancé visa from outside the UK. You must apply online.

Document checklist
Once you meet all the eligibility conditions, you need to check the document list as well. These documents are required when you are applying for a UK fiancé visa.

  • Application form
  • Your passport/travel documents
  • Documents to prove your knowledge of the English language such as a degree certificate or English language test certificate
  • Your Tuberculosis (TB) test results if you come from a country where you must take the TB test
  • Passport/travel documents
  • Proof of finances such as bank statement, salary slip etc.
  • Evidence of adequate accommodation such as rental documents, property ownership documents if your partner owns a property in the UK.
  • Relationship documents etc.

Submit a valid application

You must complete all the sections required on the application form. You need to pay the fee of £1,523 for a UK fiancé visa applicable. You also need to submit the necessary documents.

Taking an appointment at a visa center

While filling the application form you need to make an appointment at a visa center in your country. You should take all the requested documents there. You will be asked to give your biometric details such as fingerprints and photographs.

How long can you stay after a successful UK fiance visa application?

Once your visa application is successful, you are granted a stay of a maximum of 6 months in the UK. During this period of 6 months, you should marry your partner in the UK. After your marriage with your
fiancé in the UK, you can apply for a UK Spouse visa to continue living with your partner.

Do you need to apply for a UK fiancé visa? It is better to take expert advice for a hassle-free UK fiancé visa application. Contact our immigration experts now on 02034111261 to find more about our affordable services.

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Naturalization as a British citizen

Naturalization as a British Citizen happens at the discretion of the Home Secretary. If the Home Secretary finds that the applicant meets all the requirements under British Nationality Act 1981, the Home Secretary may grant citizenship to the applicant.

Requirements to naturalize as a British Citizen

Requirements that applicants need to meet for Naturalisation as a British citizen depends on whether they are married or in a civil partnership with a British Citizen or not. If they are married or in a civil partnership with a British Citizen, applicants must meet the requirements of section 6(2) of the British Nationality
Act 1981 and others who are not married or in a civil partnership with a British Citizen need to meet the requirements of Section 6(1) of the British Nationality Act 1981.

Section 6(1) when applicants are not married or in a civil partnership with a British Citizen

If an applicant meets the following requirements, they can be granted a certificate of naturalization under Section 6(1) of the British Nationality Act 1981.

  • The applicant is 18 years or above.
  • An applicant is of full capacity.
  • Applicant meets the residence requirement or serving outside the UK in Crown Service under the UK government.
  • Applicant meets the "good character" criteria.
  • Applicant should be able to provide evidence that he/she has sufficient knowledge of English, Welsh or Scottish Gaelic language.
  • Applicant should be able to provide evidence that he/she has sufficient knowledge of life in the UK.
  • Applicant must intend to have their main home in the UK if granted naturalization successfully or enter into or continue in any of the following:
  • Crown Service under the UK Government
  • Service under an international organization of which the UK or the UK government is a member.
  • Employed in a company or the association established in the UK.
Section 6(2) when applicants are married or in a civil partnership with a British citizen

An applicant may be granted a certificate of naturalization if they meet the following conditions:

  • An applicant is at least 18 years or above.
  • An applicant is of full capacity.
  • An applicant is married or in a civil partnership with a British citizen.
  • Applicant meets the residence requirements.
  • Applicant meets the “good character”; condition.
  • Applicant needs to provide evidence that he/she has sufficient knowledge of English, Welsh or Scottish Gaelic language.
  • Applicant needs to provide evidence that he/she has sufficient knowledge of life in the UK.

Applying for Children

A child below 18 years of age cannot be naturalized and is rather registered as British Citizens. We will provide more information on our website in the Blogs about Registration soon. If you want professional assistance from one of our lawyers you can call us on 02034111261

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Ways to meet the financial requirement – Appendix FM

One who applies for entry clearance, leave to remain, or indefinite leave to remain in the UK as a partner or dependent child of a person who is a British Citizen or has settled status in the UK or is in the UK with refugee leave or humanitarian protection needs to meet the financial requirement

Who needs to meet the financial requirement?

Those applying for Family life as a partner or Family life as a child of a person with limited leave as a partner need to meet the financial requirement. The financial requirement also needs to be met by child applicants where a parent who has adopted the child or is in the process of it, is themselves subject to the financial requirement because they have or are applying for entry clearance or limited leave to remain in the UK as a partner under Appendix FM.
Apart from this those applying as partners or children of members of HM forces also need to meet the financial requirement.

Minimum income requirement

If you are applying as a partner you must be sponsored by your partner who is either a British citizen or has settled status in the UK. The financial requirement in the form of a minimum income threshold is like this:
Partner without children – £18,600
Partner with 1 child – £22,400
Partner with 2 children – £24,800
£2,400 additional gross annual income is required for each child after the 1st dependent child.
But if the child is a British citizen you don’t need to meet the minimum income threshold of more than £18,600.

Ways to meet the financial requirement

If one is making a visa application from outside the UK then only the income of partners will be included and if the visa application is being made from inside the UK, the income of both individuals will be counted towards meeting the minimum income threshold. In case a UK partner earns the minimum annual income, the other partner (applicant) does not have to meet the financial requirement in such situations.
The types of income include the following:

  • Salaried or non-salaried employment
  • Self-employment
  • Non-employment income such as property rental income, dividends or shares
  • Cash savings above £16,000 held by the partner and/or the applicant for at least 6 months and under their control.
  • Pension income

One important thing to note here is that income must be in the name of the applicant, their partner, or jointly.
If the applicant’s partner receives any of the following benefits or allowances in the UK, the applicant does not need to meet the minimum income threshold.

  •  Carer’s allowance
  • Disability living allowance.
  • Severe Disablement allowance
  • Industrial injuries disablement benefit
  • Attendance allowance
  • Personal Independence Payment
  • Armed Forces Independence Payment or Guaranteed Income Payment under the
  • Armed Forces Compensation Scheme
  • Constant Attendance Allowance, Mobility Supplement or War Disablement Pension
  • Under the War Pensions Scheme
  • Police Injury Pension

This is how you can meet the financial requirement when applying as a partner or a dependent child.

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Sponsoring an overseas worker

Overseas workers who wish to come to the UK for work need to get a certificate of sponsorship from their UK employer. A UK employer first needs to get a sponsor license to issue a certificate of sponsorship. Overseas worker means workers from outside the UK including citizens of the EU, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland coming to the UK after 31 December 2020.

Sponsoring overseas workers

A UK-based organization can employ overseas workers on a specific job role. For this purpose, such organizations need to obtain a sponsor license first.

Eligibility to get a sponsor license

You need to meet the basic eligibility criteria to get a license. They are the followings:

  • You need to have a proper system in place in your organization to monitor
    sponsored employees.
  • There should not be unspent criminal convictions against you for offences
    related to immigration or certain other crimes like money laundering.
  • Your sponsor license should not have been revoked in the last 12 months.

Once you submit the sponsor license application form with the required documents attached, the form and all the documents will be reviewed by the Home Office. They may make a visit to your business premises as well to confirm your ability to carry out your duties as a sponsor and also to check if you are trustworthy.

Types of sponsor license

There are two types of sponsor license. One is for long-term job offers and the second is for temporary workers. You can apply for both types of workers simultaneously or you can apply for one type depending upon your need.

Sponsorship License fee

You need to pay a fee as part of your sponsorship license. The amount of fee depends upon:

  • The type of your organization (small or charitable, medium or large
    organization) and
  • The type of license you are applying for.

If you are applying for long-term work and you are a small or charitable sponsor you need to pay £536 and £1,476 if you are a medium or large sponsor.

If you are applying for a temporary worker and you are a small or charitable sponsor or medium or large sponsor you need to pay £536.

If you are applying for both types and you are a small or charitable sponsor you need to pay £536 and £1,476 if you are a medium or large size sponsor.

How long does it take to get a decision on your application?

You should usually get a decision within 8 weeks. UKVI may visit your business during this time.

Ensure that the job role that you offer to the overseas workers falls within the Appendix Skilled Occupations

It is your duty to demonstrate that you have a genuine vacancy for an overseas worker. The job vacancy must be at an appropriate skill level and the salary that you offer must be according to Appendix Skilled Occupation Codes.

Resident Labor Market test must be carried out

Resident Labor Market Test is not mandatory under the new rules since 1 January 2021, however, in some cases, it is good practice to carry out labour market test.

Duties and obligations of sponsors

UKVI has outlined key duties and obligations for sponsor organizations. You must meet them in order to get and retain a sponsor license. You need to appoint employees in your organization who would look after the duties such as an authorising officer, key contact, Level 1 user and Level 2 user.

You must check that foreign workers have the necessary skills. qualifications or professional accreditations to do their jobs. You must keep the documents of overseas workers that show their skills and accreditations. You must inform UKVI if sponsored workers don’t comply with the conditions of their visa. If you fail to meet your duties and obligations your license can be downgraded, suspended, or revoked.

Sponsoring an worker

After the organisation has been granted the licence they can request an allocation of Certificate of Sponsorship (CoS). The CoS needs to be assigned to the prospective worker and they should apply for their entry clearance or leave to remain on the basis of the CoS. The worker will need to meet the English Language requirement and score relevant points according to Appendix Skilled Worker of the Immigration Rules.
If you are looking for advice and assistance on sponsoring workers from overseas, you can contact Visa and Migration Ltd on 02034111261